Christ taught that a foundation that is built upon the Rock, Jesus Christ, will last. The catholic church teaches that Peter is the rock. Unfortunately for them, this viewpoint will fall apart.
~Deuteronomy 32:4 He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.
~Deuteronomy 32:15 But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered with fatness; then he forsook God which made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation.
~Deuteronomy 32:18 Of the Rock that begat thee thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that formed thee.
~2 Samuel 23:3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.
~1 Corinthians 10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.
There is no question in these four verses that the Rock is God, Jesus Christ. Not only do these verses emphatically state that the Rock is Christ, but the word Rock is capitalized! No matter how much the catholic church teaches that Peter is the rock, their doctrine is a direct contradiction to these Scriptures. So why does the catholic church teach this? Let’s look at the Scriptures:
~Matthew 16:16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
Peter’s statement (that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God) is that rock Christ spoke of in Matthew 16:18. No matter how hard Satan tries to convince mankind that there are many ways to Heaven, Christ is the only foundation – the only way to Heaven. It is that rock (that Jesus is God, the Saviour and Messiah) that will prevail. Not Peter.
~Matthew 16:19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.
Albert Barnes worded it beautifully when in his commentary of this verse:
He that is in possession of it has the power of access, and has a general care of a house. Hence, in the Bible, a key is used as a symbol of superintendence an emblem of power and authority. See the Isa_22:22 note; Rev_1:18; Rev_3:7 notes. The kingdom of heaven here means, doubtless, the church on earth. See the notes at Mat_3:2. When the Saviour says, therefore, he will give to Peter the keys of the kingdom of heaven, he means that he will make him the instrument of opening the door of faith to the world the first to preach the gospel to both Jews and Gentiles. This was done, Acts 2:14-36; 10. The “power of the keys” was given, on this occasion, to Peter alone, solely for this reason; the power of “binding and loosing” on earth was given to the other apostles with him. See Mat_18:18. The only pre-eminence, then, that Peter had was the honor of first opening the doors of the gospel to the world.
God is a God of order. The Jews had always been the ones to have the salvation of the Lord and to bring it to others. The Gospel had to be preached to them first (see Romans 1:16, 2:9 and 2:10). The Jew would have to be convinced that the Holy Spirit and salvation they received was the same one the Gentiles were receiving. That is why Peter was given the honor of opening the doors of salvation to both Jews and Gentiles.
The early church had the Apostles to lead them into all truths of the Old Testament Scriptures. As the Gospels and Epistles were written (by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit – not by the Apostles “efforts”) along the way, they were read to the church. The “construction” of the New Testament Scriptures were meticulously cared for and treasured (see 2 Timothy 4:13). The early church definitely had Scriptures which were used by the Apostles and disciples to teach them in all things!
~2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:
The catholic church leaders do not want their members reading the Word and interpreting for themselves because they fear that their members would be inspired with truth from the Holy Spirit!